Bhutan of chaos and civil war for about 200

Bhutan is a Buddhist kingdom that is in the Himalayan mountains, one of the highest mountain ranges in the world. It is located in an area that borders both India and China.  The Bhutanese people are considered the most peaceful people in the South Asian region, but they have encountered conflict. This is why actions were taking place to resolve a major conflict over the Bhutan border claimed by both India and China (source). The possibility of war is very high. It is believed, based on its building, that Bhutan excised at early as 2000 BC. We don’t know much about Bhutan until the introduction of Tibetan Buddhism in the 9th century when many monks fled to Bhutan from tibet. Bhutan politics are very closely tied to its religious history and the monasteries.  Bhutan is only one of few countries that have never been conquered, occupied, or ruled by an outside power. Bhutan has been independent throughout its history. It has always been able to successfully defend its sovereignty.  In 1616 the leader of Bhutan chased out Tibetan invaders, took over the schools and wrote down a very detailed system of law. He made himself the ruler of all religion and government. After he died there was a lot of chaos and civil war for about 200 years. In 1885 the civils wars ended and the leader of Bhutan was able to get power and began getting closer to the British who were ruling in India. In 1947, when India became independent from great Britain, its government recognised Bhutan as a independent country. India and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Peace and Friendship in 1949. This agreement said that India would not interfere in Bhutan’s affairs at home, but would help with its foreign policies. Bhutan began to develop and plan for its future. It wasn’t as isolated as it was before. Its laws became more modern and it became a member of the United Nations in 1971.In 1972 a new leader who was only 16 years old became the king of Bhutan. During his time as king he helped make Bhutan a more modern country. He improved the schools, decentralize the government, developed hydroelectric power and towisem. He is best known for spreading his idea of “gross national happiness.” (source). On March 26, 2005, a very favorable day arrived to create an environment of harmony, peace, and prosperity for Bhutan. The king and government gave every citizen of Bhutan a copy of its first Constitution and asked everyone to read it. According to the Constitution the king was the leader for setting the direction of the government only as long as he was committed and able to protect the interests of the kingdom and its people. Everyone felt very secure and it was reaching the goal of economic independence and self-reliance.  Its people were considered some of the happiest people on earth and other peaceful countries helped them and admired them.  India has depended on Bhutan to provide electricity and resources to the people who live in its northern region and, in exchange for protecting Bhutan from predators and guaranteeing its safety.  This was helpful to both Bhutan and India and the country enjoyed peace and stability for many years, until in 2013, when its India and China brought their conflicting interests to the region (source).Today, India and China are getting ready for a possible war over a plateau in the Himalayas unless they can find a peaceful solution. This place is called the Doklam Plateau and it is located near where Tibet, India, and Bhutan meet.  Bhutan has been a peaceful country and is a friend of India.  Both Bhutan and India claim the area as their own.  The conflict part of this essay talks about what is going on there. As we said, India is a friend of the Kingdom of Bhutan and is only 13 miles from a disputed border with China. Near this border, India has helped Bhutan to build  a training academy, a military hospital, and a golf course. During this past summer (2017), China began building a road in this place and India sent troops and equipment to block the work. This has caused anger between India and China that has lasted more than 50 days, with Indian soldiers facing Chinese troops. They did have a war in 1962, and people are afraid that their ambition and nationalism could lead them to another war again.  The difference now is that they all have larger weapons and could really have violence. The Indian government calls this a “significant change of status quo with serious security implications for India .” (source). The road runs through the Doklam Plateau, on an unmarked border between China and Bhutan.  Even though it’s not part of India, the plateau holds an important place for Delhi and its geography and political interests.  The area that they are fighting over is very close to a territory that connects India to its northeastern states.  India is afraid that if China takes over this area, it might be invaded by China and end up in a war with Beijing (source).As nuclear war is being threatened between North Korea and the United States, this conflict between India and China in this remote Himalayan area is not making as much noise, but the stakes are just as high. As we mentioned, the border is with Bhutan, the most peaceful country on earth and India wants both sides to withdraw, and solve this conflict by dialogue. China says no and it wants New Delhi to withdraw its troops “if it cherishes peace.” (source).Some of this history of this conflict is that Bhutan stood by India during its war with China and Pakistan in 2013.  What caused the crisis in relations in 2013 that began to show up again in 2017?Bhutan was a protectorate of British India and New Delhi became its protector in 1947. The Prime Minister of India visited Bhutan in  2014.  This visit was not really just for friendship, but about economic things “including the need to further develop Bhutan’s rich natural resources and hydropower potential for mutual benefit.” (Stobdan).  He was also very afraid of China stepping up contacts with Bhutan. In fact, before Prime Minister Modi came to power, Beijing, China, had been trying to cut India’s sacred bond with Bhutan. Most Indians are not fully aware of the status of Indo-Bhutan relations until critics got really upset about the crisis that erupted in the summer 2013 and put India’s “carefully nurtured and fostered” relations with Bhutan under major strain (source).  There was a 1949 agreement (updated in 2007) “that guided the modern  Indo-Bhutan relationship and aims to ensure India’s non-interference in Bhutan’s internal affairs” (Stobdan). Obtaining permission over arms imports, among other things. Now it was changed to only say that India and Bhutan “shall cooperate closely with each other on issues relating to their national interests. Neither government shall allow the use of its territory for activities harmful to the national security and interest of the other.” (source).Now, “India and China are in a war of words over a mutual breach of territory in the Nathula Pass in Sikkim, which led to China suspending the Kailash Mansarovar Yatra through the area” (Janardhanan). China has alleged that India is fighting on behalf of Bhutan, which had opposed the construction of a motorable road by the Chinese military from Dhokla in the Doklam area towards the Bhutan Army camp at Zorn Pelri on June 16, 2017. A dormant border primarily was involved with China and Bhutan then suddenly it turned over with India forced to get involved with the diplomatic brinkmanship of the corner of the Himalayas. Troops from China wanted to move over the Doklam plateau and claim Bhutan. Doklam, also referred to as Donglang, is claimed by both China and Bhutan. Bhutan’s envoy to India had issued a demarche to the Chinese embassy in Delhi asking the Chinese side to stop the construction.  In the meantime, Bhutan’s television and newspapers are offering only matter-of-fact reportage on the issue if one goes by what is available in the online versions and on social media. There are not too many aggressive editorials or opinion pieces on the issue, in stark contrast to Indian and Chinese media.In conclusion, China and India are two nuclear powers in a military standoff with Bhutan and the territory near its kingdom. China is trying to take over Bhutan so they can have its land, roads and electric power for themselves in this very remote area.  For the Chinese, having control of Bhutan would make it a valuable passageway through the Himalayas.  There is conflict still between these two Asian superpowers. Bhutan, a peace-loving and prosperous country, is caught in the middle.  Throughout history, it has been able to avoid being taken over, but today’s world may have a different path for the tiny country in the future.  While other parts of the world are getting more attention, the I can’t rulers of China and India with are still trying to fight for what they want, the Kingdom of  Bhutan.