Beginning members in 2004 and later, were not yet

Beginning in the 1980s, when the European integration
process moved to a new stage, especially in line with the European Single
Market objective, the monolithic structure in which each of the Member States
has joined the entire EU policy has changed. Some Member States have not
preferred to join the field of economic and monetary union, common foreign and
security policy and co-operation in justice and home affairs, which was founded
by Maastricht Treaty (such as the fact that Britain, Sweden and Denmark prefer
outside the third stage of the economic and monetary union, and also Denmark
prefers to stay out of security and defense policy). This tendency continued at
later stages. Britain and Ireland also stay out of the Amsterdam Treaty and the
Schengen treaties incorporated into the EU acquis. However, some countries,
which were EU members in 2004 and later, were not yet fully included in the
Euro and Schengen Areas, as they could not perform the criteria.

At this stage I want to mention Bretix which means a word
that has become used as a shorthand way of saying the UK leaving the EU. Bretix
decision will cause major impacts on the future of the EU project and the
balances within the EU. Although it seems unlikely that the separation of
Britain from the EU will bring about the disintegration of the EU, it presents
the need for a paradigm shift in EU integration. In a period when the EU’s
common interests such as the common currency and free movement are at stake,
Brexit result brings along tough decision-making process for the EU. I think
that the EU should do after the referendum in Britain; in addition to directing
the process of separation of the EU from a large and effective Member State; in
the founding countries such as France and the Netherlands consideration of
populist trends that have risen, the EU should evaluate these populist
tendencies and is to prevent domino effect from spreading to other countries.
Beyond this, it has become inevitable to develop a new vision for European
integration through the revision of the institutional structure of the EU and
the reform of its structural problems. Britain’s decision to depart from the EU
obliges the EU leaders to initiate a process of judging the coming of the
growing insecurity towards the EU at the people level and the future direction
of the EU. In my opinion, the EU can act more courageous about the EU
integration after Brexit since Britain has always been skeptical about the
enlargement of the EU. In my opinion, Integration needs to be strengthened in
order for the EU to continue its progress and its claims. The EU should
establish a tighter, more federative group of countries that we can call the
“center” of all the policies of the EU, such as the euro area and the
Schengen area. As far as the pessimistic scenario is concerned, the Brexit
decision further deepens the current political and economic rift between the
Member States. The crises the EU has recently faced regarding the Euro Zone and
the refugees have created an atmosphere in which the EU Council has increased
its role in the EU’s institutional hierarchy and the Commission and the EP have
formed an alliance among themselves to prevent this trend. This is the
manifestation of the gap between the federal structure being tried to be
created at the EU level and the approach emerging in many Member States and
prioritizing national sovereignty. Brexit can strengthen both trends; Some
Member States that do not want to integrate more with the EU in certain areas
are also likely to want to make compromises on certain issues from the EU, such
as Cameron’s Brexit referendum earlier. If events develop in this direction, it
may be expected that the EU will focus on practical steps towards integration
rather than ambitious integration projects.

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