ANSWER1 the coil · Lenz law, When EMF is



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There are two types Generators; Conventional and
Non-Conventional sources.


 In conventional source


conventional source, the turbines are made to rotate by the steam, by the water
or by the nuclear reactors

In power
system layout of the generators are to be functioned as electricity producer
for the given demands by the consumers.

In the
power system layout of the Conventional generators needs the large space and
the huge amount of the money.

Non-conventional source






Non-conventional source, Natural calamities are used to generate electricity.
For example, Wind, Solar, Biomass, Tidal waves, Geothermal.

source can be utilized within in given space for producing electricity, only
the initial cost is more.

There are 3 laws for
Electromagnetic induction

first law, when the conductor is placed in the varying magnetic field the EMF
is produced which is called as induced EMF, if conductor is closed circuit then
that induced current is flowing through it.

second law, the magnitude of induced EMF is equal to rate of change of flux
linkages in the coil

Lenz law,
When EMF is induced according to the faradays law then its direction will be in
such way that it opposes the cause of its protection.

Mutual Induction, when two coils are magnetically
linked with each other then the A.C. flowing through the one coil produces the
Induced EMF in the other coil.


The same goes with the
transformers that is when they are magnetically linked, and therefore the EMF
equation is

Voltage transformer ratio E1 / E2 = K



1.      What is
reactive power

causes low power factor in Electrical System

How to
improve Power Factor


Reactive power; It exits in A.C. circuit when the
voltage and the current are not in the same phase. The unit of the Reactive
power is var (volt ampere reactive).

Causes of low power factor in
power system; Low power
factor (PF) implies

current in the given amount of power which leads to the high temperature rise
in the A.C. transformers, cables and switchgears when more current is flowing
through the circuit due to the low power factor (PF). And when there is a lack
of capacitor in the given circuit which adversely cause the low power factor

To improve power factor;the capacitor bank or synchronous
condenser are placed in the parallel to the transmission circuit. In which the
circuit can not be 100% loss less transmission lines, by adding the capacitors
it can attain only 70% at max. Therefore, XL can not be equal to XC.
Inductor (L) and Capacitor (C) can not be in 90-degree phase shift, 53.1301
degree will be maximum phase shift between the inductor (L) and the capacitor





and explain how in a transmission system, the stability and efficiency, and
Power Factor of the system are affected by the type of connected load.
Elaborate the above specifically with respect to linear and non-linear loads
(like power supply rectifier, electric welding machine, or arc furnace).


In a
transmission system the stability will be considered as the amount of
electricity generated and distributed through transmission line with respect to
efficiency and the power factor of the circuit. With loss less, transmission
and faulty transmission withstanding will be the factors of the stability
transmission system. The stability of the transmission system varies with
respect linear loads and non-linear loads. In all the Linear loads the
stability of the transmission system will be always stable conditions, but in
non-linear loads the transmission line stability varies with respect to the
non-linear load, in which stability will not go to unstable state, but it will
be like half stable, partially stable and fully stable.

In the
transmission system the efficiency is with respect to the distributed side,
however even if the supply meets the demand even though there is only 98% of
efficiency in which 2% will go in losses as for transmission of the
electricity. But most of the cases the supply won’t meet the demand in India
and there will be more loss.

In the transmission
line the power factor is maintained in between the range of 0.7 to 0.85 to keep
real power slight more than reactive power. And it is impossible make real and
reactive power equal.





the past, present, and future trends of power industry in respect to a
particular country, for example, your own country.



          In my own country, the past trend was
only with the coal, diesel and hydro powers in 1947. Then they slowly initiated
the gas and nuclear powers in 1974. The renewable energy came to existence in
the India by 1997. Then the solar panels and wind mills are widely installed
for pollution free India but unfortunately due to enormous amount of demand of
electricity the nonrenewable source of generation is installed like nuclear
power plant in India to satisfy the increased demands. Then for now India has
declared that not to promote any nonrenewablesource of generation even in case
of increased demands in the country. As for now in India, the total generation
is 329,204.53 MWh till April 2017. In future India is planning to have more and
more number of solar plants which will produce 93000 MWh in the period of 2017
to 2022. And with help of Wind power plant India aims to produce 20000 MWh in
the period of 2017 to 2022.

In my
suggestion is to close the present thermal power plants and to install the
Geothermal, Tidal and Biomass power plants in the country and to impose the
Radio active element arrestor or controller in the nuclear power plant.




environmental impacts of power generation from fossil fuel, especially the
impacts by coal-fired power plants.


For the power
generation in the thermal power plants the fossil fuels are used as the fuel in
the power plants, in that coal fired power plant is widely used.

For us
coal is just burnt for the generation in power plant, but we don’t know that it
produces very harmful byproducts and emission of gasses like Sulphurdioxide,
carbondioxide and nitrogenoxide and so on; which cause the more pollution to
the environment.

The major
reason for global warming is coal burning in the power plants in which coal
burning includes approximately 114 pounds of lead, 4 pounds of cadmium and
other heavy toxic elements, which are highly dangerous to the living organisms.

 In our country India the main source of power
generation as of 2011 is coal that is about 69%. Therefore, our country now
reduced the usage of coal somehow, in future all the coal based power plants
will be closed due their impacts.

But sad
truth, in our countryrulingparty of Advani group needs to coal powered India,
so they estimated to usage of coal by 2022 will be 1.5 billion tons of coal
more in India to generate electricity.





benefits of solar energy. Also explain why with so many benefits, the utility
and infrastructure development of solar energy generation is limited?


There are so many benefits in the
solar energy

non-conventional energy is replaced by conventional energy that is solar

energy has no cost to supply electricity indefinitely.

energy can be installed in the roof tops for the consumers own use.

With the
help of solar energy, the privatization can be brought in to the power

In solar
power the heat energy is converted into electric energy, in which the solar
energy will not harmful impact for the living organisms.

The utility, infrastructure and
development of the Solar energy

panel can be installedin the dry place like desserts in which the heat energy
can be stored in thesand for the future use.

The solar
panel can be placed in two directions for the betterment of the electric energy
from the solar power.

shape of solar panel is more efficient than the flat solar panel, in which in
space circular solar panels are used for the electric energy in the space

In India
the solar energy is expected to be more in the period of 2017 to 2022.




the accidents of Chernobyl disaster (1986) and Fukushima (2011) in relation to
nuclear power generation.


disaster in 1986 is due to the man made mistakes, it causes due to lack of
reactor knowledge and engineering knowledge. And before the test to be
conducted, it should e undergone with speed test but here that is purposely
ignored by the director of the Chernobyl. And in this nuclear reactor coolant
pumps goes off while testing and the backup energy that is diesel generators
are delaying being turned on, so apparently the nuclear power plant gets heated
more and it got fire inside it and then all the safety guards were destructed
due to the enormous amount of the heat and damaged the total area.

disaster in 2011 is due to the nature made disaster in the nuclear power plant,
when the earthquakes were recorded the tsunamis were expected but the safety
guards of the nuclear reactors were not so strong to withstand the natural
calamities, so the waves of tsunami was 13 meter to 15 meter which abruptly
flooded the nuclear plants and causes to turn off the coolant pumps for the
nuclear reactor, even the diesel generators and the batteries also were not
working in the flooded conditions, so due to increased in heat causes nuclear
disaster in the nuclear power plant.




and elaborate on the benefits of using Natural gas for power generation and
substantiate with data to highlight that this energy fuel is gaining popularity
in country like Australia.


gas is environmental friendly for the power generation, in this natural gas
blue flame will be seen which is a result of the clean combustion. This natural
gas also produces only few number of byproducts like nitrogen oxide. Only few
pollutants are emitted in atmosphere in the case of the natural gas power
generation. Switching to natural gas power generation will reduce the thermal
power generation which widely uses the coal as their fuel for burning. And
natural gas is intoxic if this gas is inhaled by the humans means this will not
make any impact on the humans.

natural gas is cost effective and can be easily replaced by the coal, this is
not at all harmful for humans, in which the most power generations can be made
in the natural gas near the house which will not produce any explosions in
safety reasons. In natural gas power generation, the system will be more reliable
and stable efficient.

 The natural gas has more safety than the other
thermal power plants, in which natural gas will have their odor, if this odor
is smelled outside of the power plant then the natural gas can have controlled
for safety records.