According top-down processes, to use the both together because

to the employed statistical analyses conducted by the researcher, there was a
statistically significant betterment observed in the experimental participants
after a seven-week of pronunciation instruction. The results of the ANOVA from
the posttest administration indicated that the experimental groups who received
pronunciation instruction had a better performance than the control group who
did not receive it. Thus, the findings suggest that phonetic instruction and
learners’ phonemic transcription of different words benefit the subjects in
learning the sound system of the English language more accurately. In a similar way, the control group has also demonstrated
development after a seven-week of regular classes. According to the findings,
the development that the experimental group has performed is significantly
higher than the control group. The results suggested that pronunciation
instruction has an effect on the listening comprehension skills of EFL
students. Meanwhile, according to the findings, the experimental group “A”
(segmental) has performed better in comparison with the other experimental
group “B” (supra segmental) although the difference was not statistically

As mentioned earlier, the listening
comprehension skill is a complex skill and require heavy processing. On the
other hand, it is a crucial element in English language learning and how to
develop listening is a subject of debate to many researchers. The good listener
can be a good speaker and this skill can affected on other skills.  learners should be trained in bottom-up and
top-down processes, to use the both together because one alone is not enough to
develop listening comprehension. However, using strategies alone will not aid
in improving this complicated process. According to literature, integrating
various techniques into classrooms such as benefiting from authentic materials,
and use of technology were useful to acquire this skill (e.g., Rixon,
1986; Rubin, 1995). Using
technology can promote the development of listening comprehension by providing
learners with compelling, interesting material (McBride, 2009; Rost,
2007) and it can also aid
listening comprehension development by enhancing listening input (Chapelle,
2003). Using authentic
materials include use of songs, TV serials, movies, documentaries; and using
technology includes use of videos, computers, and the Internet.

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