According to McCool and Haynes, 2002 (in cited in Lee, 2012), sustainable tourism development can be defined as the residents’ needs can be satisfied, it also can enhance Malaysia economic growth, the physical locations were protected, and the residents’ quality life were improved. Based on Sebele, 2010; Taylor, 1995’s research, the community-based tourism development is the important for sustainable tourism development management (in cited in Lee, 2012). Based on Lee’s study (2012), the critical factor to succeed the community-based tourism management is the local residents’ support for sustainable tourism development. When the local residents’ attitudes are positive towards tourism development, the residents are more support for tourism development (Siu, Lee and Leung, 2013, in cited in Moghavvemi, Woosnam, Paramanathan, Musa, Hamzah, 2017).
Besides, the local residents are supported tourism development when they are perceived personal benefits and which can enhance their quality life. Sharma and Gursoy (2015) studied the local residents support for sustainable tourism development in future when community is benefited (in cited in Moghavvemi, Woosnam, Paramanathan, Musa, Hamzah, 2017). The local residents are weighted the economic, socio-cultural and environmental concerns to determine whether to become dependent on the benefits or the costs of tourism development (Lee, 2012). However, several local residents perceived the benefits of tourism development. Some of the local residents inclined to highlight the undesirable consequences for instance water pollution, vandalism and other negative impacts on environment. This will cause the local residents opposes to support the tourism development in future (Chen and Chen, 2010, in cited in Moghavvemi, Woosnam, Paramanathan, Musa, Hamzah, 2017).
According to Guo, Kim and Chen’s study (2014), the local residents have the negative perceptions or attitudes toward the tourism development when this future sustainable tourism development is incurred more costs than benefits to local residents and hence they are more likely not to support for tourism development (in cited in Moghavvemi, Woosnam, Paramanathan, Musa, Hamzah, 2017). Gursoy, Chi and Dyer (2010) also studied the stability and sustainability of tourism can determine the support level of residents toward tourism development (in cited in Moghavvemi, Woosnam, Paramanathan, Musa, Hamzah, 2017).
In addition, there are three dimension of sustainable tourism development which involved economic, socio-cultural and environmental. The main dimension of sustainable tourism evelopment is economic sustainability because tourism is an economic activity. The tourists’ consumption and spending per day should be monitored and also determine the tourist destination that can create value from tourism effectively. The economic benefits from tourism should be distributed among the community fairly (Choi and Sirakaya, 2006). According to Ohlan (2017), in the link between tourism and economic growth is occurred in the developed countries instead of developing countries. Business viability is directly affected by the volume of visitors, expenditure and length of stay, while the product offered to the tourist will affect their satisfaction and repeat visitation rates. The local ownership, expenditure, volume and visitor satisfaction influence the potential to create jobs and boost in economic sustainability (Agyeiwaah, McKercher& Suntikul, 2017).
Socio-cultural sustainability is one of the core dimensions in the sustainability of tourism development. The social and cultural indicator themes highlight the scope of the issue facing the tourism sector (Agyeiwaah, McKercher, Suntikul, 2017). According to Lee and Hsieh (2016), the environment dimension consists of six sub-dimensions: loss of renewable resources, rate of ecosystem degradation, environmental impact of tourism activity, rate of reuse or recycling, health of the human population, and loss of non-renewable resources (in cited in Choi and Sirakaya, 2006). Travel movements are usually caused by getting knowledge of the cultural historical heritage of certain destination. The attractive values of the tourism destination often involve uniqueness, exotic and not repeated (Ruzic and Demonja, 2015). According to the research of Agyeiwaah, McKercher, Suntikul (2017), where there is a broad set of issues emerged in the cultural dimension, there will relate to maintaining cultural integrity, especially of indigenous and minority communities (in cited in Choi & Sirakaya, 2006). Local customs, language retention and cultural sites maintenance are core themes for indigenous communities. These concerns are threated to the local cultures and led to a proactive preservation and management to be taken (in cited in Besculides, Lee& McCormick, 2002).
Next, the indicator for sustainable tourism development is the environment sustainability. The environment is the great force in tourism. The relationship between tourism and the environment must be managed so that the environment can be in long-term exploitation rather than consuming in short term. In order to achieve the relationship between tourism and environment, it should build a harmony connection between the visitors’ needs, place itself and the local community (Ruzic and Demonja, 2015). The environmental sustainability recognizes that natural resources of the world should be viewed as depleted and not abundant. The environment must be shielded for its own intrinsic value and for the present and future generations (Choi and Sirakaya, 2006). According to Joseph (2014), the natural environment has been utilized as a long-term resource for tourism development (in cited in Maher, 2012). Some of the tourists may not aware that they could create injured and damage to the environment they visit. The core issues under the dimension of environmental sustainability are water quality and solid waste management (Agyeiwaah, McKercher& Suntikul, 2017). Besides that, the tourists that adversely to change their behavior toward the environment such as walking, driving, and camping in sensitive environments, that causes the nature to take a large amount of time to recover from damages (Joseph, 2014).