5.9. Atmosphere in Space Settlement Composition of Air in TITAN:• In Civilization unit:Nitrogen- 78.08%Oxygen- 20.51%??Argon – 0.93%Carbon Dioxide- 0.03%Other- 0.45%• In Agricultural unit:Oxygen- 20%Nitrogen- 77%Argon- 0.5%Carbon Dioxide- 0.5%Other- 0.8% According to NASA’s latest research, the oxygen requirement per person would be around 0.84 Kg/day. TITAN has population of 10000 persons who would require around 13977.6 kg/day of Oxygen. 6500 Kg per day can be produced using either of these methods. The rest of the oxygen will be produced in the agriculture sector.Oxygen pressure would be kept at 22.7 Kpa which is the oxygen pressure at sea level. Oxygen from Lunar soil:Ilemnite along with raw lunar soil and rutile will be extracted from the lunar soil; successive heating would separate hydrogen from the lunar soil at 600° C and it would decompose into a mixture of iron and rutile at 900°C. At 1525°C iron will melt and leave behind rutile which will decompose into titanium and O2 at 1640°C. Every 1000g of Ilemnite can produce 317.88g of oxygen. Gases from MarsOther than the Moon, Mars too will be important for the extraction of gases. Thecomposition of Mars’s atmosphere is shown below.Carbon Dioxide- 95.32%Nitrogen- 2.7% Argon- 1.6%Oxygen- 0.13%Others- 0.25% Extracting Oxygen:Martian atmosphere is 95% carbon dioxide. This carbon dioxide will be captured using molecular sieve with pore size of 0.4nm which would decompose into carbon monoxide and oxygen using the following methods: Davis’ Method:CO2 can be decomposed using Davis’ method, in which Argon-Carbon Dioxide mixture would be taken in a shock tube and would be heated to 6527oC. Shock waves would be passed through the system which would lead to decaying infrared emissions. Carbon Dioxide would be decomposed into Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen. Carbon Monoxide can be later released into Martian atmosphere. Ultrasonic Electrolysis:Ultrasonic sound with a frequency of ~ 42.7 kHz would be passed through heated water making it unstable and disassociate it into O2 and H2. Extracting Nitrogen:Nitrogen extraction and Helium Isolation Using Molecular Sieve:Ammonia and Helium would be separated from meteorite dust and Martian atmosphere using alumino silicate molecular sieve with pore size of 0.3 nm. Both of them would be later separated from each other using Polysulphone amide membrane. Separation of Ammonia from Martian Atmosphere:Ammonia would be separated from air sample by using Alumino-Silicate molecular sieve with a pore of 0.3 nm. Ammonium obtained from Martian atmosphere would be divided up; a part of it would be separately pumped into a containment chamber where it would be reserved to be transported separately to the agricultural torus. TheAmmonia obtained would be decomposed thermally to produce nitrogen and hydrogen. Nitrogen and hydrogen can further be separated using fractional distillation. Techniques for Extraction of Multiple Gases:VPSA (Vacuum Pressure Swing Absorption)In VSPA, air is drawn into the system and is passed through the system chambers. Martian air will be passed through platforms with Zeolites for the absorption of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and argon.GasZeoliteRequired pressureOxygenLiLSX Zeolite22.7 kPaNitrogenLiAgX Zeolite26.6 kPaCarbon DioxideSSZ-13 Zeolite7 kPaArgonAga Zeolite——– Carbon Dioxide Scrubbing:The air will be passed into a compression chamber where it would be continuously cooled and compressed. Here a Carbon Dioxide scrubbing solvent (after cooling) called MEA (Mono-Ethanolamine) will be released. CO2 would then be decomposed using Davis’ method, in which Argon-Carbon Dioxide mixture would be taken in a shock tube and would be heated to 6527- oC Carbon Dioxide would be decomposed into Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen. Carbon Dioxide scrubbing can also be done by establishing RCRS (Regenerative carbon dioxide removal system). The sorbent for absorbing CO2 would be silver oxide along with zinc oxide along with which air would be pumped at 205oC for 9-12 hours. Weather and Climate:The people residing in TITAN would not be able to live without any appropriate climate and humidity control system, mimicking the conditions of Earth. The seasons in the residential unit will be controlled according to the given table. Theseasons will not change within a day.Name of seasonTemperature HumiditySummer25 degrees to 30 degrees30% to 34%Winter24 degrees to 28 degrees50% to 70%Rainy10 degrees to 13 degrees28% to 30%Spring 13 degrees to 16 degrees31% to 37 % Creation of Artificial Seasons:Controlling heat and cold:Thermo-acoustic Refrigeration (for decreasing temperature):The source from which acoustic waves are produced is known as the “driver”. Thedriver emits a sound frequency in a tube filled with high pressure gases. This tube isknown as the resonator. Between the tubes there is a “stack” of porous material which is solid in order to block the path of the sound frequencies. Then thermo acoustic effect takes place in order to cool down the other end and produce refrigeration. Planting this technique on large scale can produce artificial air-cooling in TITAN so that the people could experience winter. Thermal Induction (for increasing temperature)Water will be used to increase the temperature of the living areas. This will be done using Thermal Induction. Waste water will be heated using thermal induction and then the air produced in the heating will be directly supplied to the residential unit.Thermal Induction refrigeration driver Controlling Humidity:Humidity will be controlled using these devices Ultrasonic Humidifiers (for increasing humidity)Ultrasonic Humidifiers have a metallic diaphragm which pulsates at a frequency that cannot be heard by human ear. This technique is similar to loudspeakers. This frequency will produce water droplets. Molecular sieves (for decreasing humidity)The molecular sieves which will be used to remove humidity from the climate will have pores which are of 0.19 nanometers. Rain and Snow:Cloud SeedingTo create artificial rain cloud seeding technique would be used. In this technique,Silver Iodide is dispersed into the air which acts as nuclei for the water to condense around. So the humidity will be increased to very high above the region where it is to rain and then silver iodide would be released into air. This would cause rain. During the rainy season in any part of the VONA, it would rain about once or twice a week.