countries have submitted
Appropriate Mitigation Actions to the UNFCCC. Accordingly, many SSA countries
are reducing their CO2 emissions
and use of ozone-depleting substances. Although forest policies in SSA countries have increasingly incorporated sustainable forest management, public investment for forest development and the environment remains low.
environment agencies in SSA
countries (Uganda, Kenya, Madagascar, Burkina Faso, Congo and Togo, etc.)
have prepared ‘National Conservation Strategies’, ‘National Environmental Action Plans’, ‘Forestry Action Plans’ and ‘Plans
of Action to Combat Desertification’, often with the support of international organizations that include the ‘International Union for Conservation of Nature’, ‘Food and Agriculture Organization’, ‘UN Environment
Programme’, ‘UN Development
Sudano-Sahelian Office’ and the ‘World Bank’1.
these plans often run parallel to overall national development plans and are
not linked or integrated with other economic and sectoral
plans. Many of them therefore lack the full involvement and support of key
ministries whose cooperation is needed to ensure effective implementation. Some
of them have other weaknesses with general recommendations that lack strategic details, as the assignment of a specific implementing agency, detailed cost estimates, time
targets and funding arrangements. Most of them also focus only on national issues, without considering the transboundary implications of the proposed actions.
Fertilizers and improved seeds
A number of
countries—including Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali,
Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, and Zambia have subsidized fertilizer and improved seeds in efforts to
increase farm crop yield level
fertilizer application. Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda,
Tanzania, and Zambia subsidies were targeted to either the poor or priority
crops and reached many
farmers. About 65% of farm households in Malawi
benefited from the subsidy program. Likewise, about
95% of the 2.7 million
rural households in Kenya benefited from the subsidy program that targeted the
universally grown maize crop.
Rage of Investments
Investment as share
of agricultural budget ranged from 11% in Burkina Faso to 59% in Malawi