is rich in water resources as it receives averages of 2030 mm to 5000 mm of
rainfall throughout the year. Water resources in Malaysia depends on rainfall
(WHO, 2011). Rainwater will go through
the water cycle process either it will seep into the ground and become a
groundwater or enter the basin area and become a surface water. For
information, 97% of raw water supply comes from surface water for example river
and dam otherwise only 2% of raw water supply comes from groundwater surface for
example wells (Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara, SPANSR1 ).
is an important natural resources which is essential for all living beings. We
all use water for drinking, household activities, industrial and economic
development. Therefore, we need to provide fresh and clean water to be uses in
our daily life because it is a basic requirement needed especially for
household and domestic usage. However, rural population of the country have
less access of fresh and clean water supply as compared to urban people.
Therefore, access to uncontaminated water is become an important issue so that
fresh and clean water can be provide sufficiently.
are difference between urban and rural coverage, where it estimated that urban
population globally 94% used an improved water supply source in 2015 compare to
84% the rural population. In a recent report outlined by the UNICEF/WHO Joint
Monitoring Program (JMP), it is estimated that 79% of the rural population lack
improved water sources whereas 93% rely on surface water for survival
(Dempster, 2016; WHO/UNICEF, 2015). Eight of ten people live in rural area do
not have access to an improved source of drinking water (WHO, 2017).
management is the management of water resources under set of policies and
regulation. Planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of
water resources is the water resources management activity. Despite Malaysia
has high quantity of water resources but due to mismanagement, abuse general
apathy and other reasons have resulted in water crises. Due to the lack of
awareness, mismanagement and unsustainable usage of water gives direct impact
to ecology and environmental, and indirectly to human health (MOSTE, 2002).
It’s also give long term effect or irreversible damage permanently (Feng et
al., 2008; FOMCA, 2009). Nowadays there still some regions in Malaysia is
facing water scarcity problem. Before this there are many inexact optimization
method have been developed to deal with the uncertain problem in water research
management (Kotir et al., 2016).
2.2 RESOURCES OF WATER
urbanisation and growth of the population lead to the increasing demand for
water consumption and levels of water pollution. Although all natural sources
of water are constantly replenish through weather but we still need to be
conservative in use of water cycle. To sustain our health we depends on a
reliable, cleans supply of drinking water. Total water resources of the earth
equal 326 million cubic miles where one cubic mile equal to 1 trillion gallons
of water. Freshwater consist only 2.5 percent % while freshwater consist of
97.5 percent%. Scarcity of fresh water resources increasing around the world
due to the growing population, increasing consumption, rise in anthropogenic
activities and climate change (Schwarzenbach, 2010). In figure 2.1 show the
difference of water supply and sanitation coverage between urban and rural
Figure 2.1 : Water Supply and
Sanitation Coverage (WHO, 2000)
2.2.1 Type of water
are two natural sources of water. There are categorized as rain groundwater and
surface water. Groundwater is the part of precipitation that seeps through the
soil until it reach rock material that is saturated with water. In hydrological
system, groundwater and surface water are considered a single resources (Winter
et al., 1998).
are the sources of water that are basically cannot see or access easily.
Usually groundwater are often accessed through wells and when pressure under
the surface is high, the water is pushed up and go out through springs. Uneven rainfall and steep-sloped
rivers constrain the storage and use of surface water resources in Taiwan,
groundwater becomes a substitute for surface water in many areas (Liang et al., 2016).
water is water on the surface such as in a river, lake, wetland or ocean. The
main uses of surface water include for drinking-water and other public uses,
irrigation uses, and use by thermoelectric-power industry to cool
electricity-generating power. River is one of the most important utilization
component where river water is a sources of drinking water, irrigation, fishery
and energy production (Hacioglu and Dulger, 2009).
Table 1 : Water
Classes And Uses
of natural environment.
Water Supply I – Practically no treatment necessary.
Fishery I – Very sensitive aquatic species.
Supply II – Conventional treatment.
Fishery II – Sensitive aquatic species.
use body contact.
Supply III – Extensive treatment required.
Fishery III – Common,of economic value and tolerant species;livestock
2.2.2 Problem in water distribution
sufficient water in appropriate quality and quantity is the most important
issues in our daily life. As population increases, challenge to meet user
demands also increased. The purpose of Water Distribution Network (WDNs) is to
delivering water from sources to the consumer. Example of sources is rivers,
reservoirs, lakes and tanks. One of the problem in water distribution when WDNs
are often exposed to accidental or intentional pollution. The topology of the
network, number of consumer nodes, loading condition, hydraulic elements and
other factor make the task to controlling and distributing water become
difficult and makes it highly exposed to contamination (Kessler et al., 1998).
When WDNs exposed to the contamination it will leads to the chemical or
biological agent in the WDNs which can effect human health.
To ensure WDNs are in good condition
while operating the infrastructure need to be monitored. Leakage is the serious
issue that exist in daily operation of WDNs, which can cause huge cost difference
between water production and sale. According to a researcher, one of the common
and critical issues need to be monitor and deal is with water leaks, where the
amount up to 30% of the total amount of extracted water (Puust et al., 2010).
2.3 CONTAMINANTS IN WATER
Definition of contaminant is any physical, chemical,
or biological substances or matter in water. In recent research reveals that,
the presence of multitude organic contaminants significantly will effect water
quality where most of the contaminant originate from diverse sources and
typically the concentration range in between ng L-1 to µg L-1 (McElroy
et al., 2015). Biological and chemical contaminant in tap and drinking water
will lead the evolution of contagious diseases (Krause et al., 2009). Example
of contagious diseases is hepatitis, influenza, severe
acute respiratory syndrome
(SARS), pneumonia, gastric ulcers and pulmonary diseases. That why unsafe water
supply will effect human health (Susan, 2004). Besides that, the huge amount of
toxic with heavy metal usually discharged from anthropogenic activities where
the discharged contribute metal contamination in aquatic environment (Gao et
al., 2009). Bangladesh is the one of least developed country but facing serious
difficulties with heavy metal contamination (Ali, 2016).
is a contaminant that can be seen includes dust and dirt, leaves, bark, animal,
bird droppings and other visible material. Debris
flows is a moving mass that travels through a slope under influence gravity
such as loose mud, sand soil, rock, water and air. Besides that, it considered
to be debris flow when the moving material must be loose and capable to flow
and at least 50% of the material must be sand size particle or larger than
that. Debris flow will closely look like a viscous fluid due to containing many
loose earth material.
of debris flow disaster is relatively very small compare to other sediment
related disaster but once debris flow occurs, the potential of damage is huge (Kim
et al., 2012). In figure 2.2 show
that, the Buriganga River flows through Dhaka, Bangladesh. Where Dhaka is the
largest city in Bangladesh, has a population of about 12 million. The Buriganga
River is heavily polluted by individuals and industry.
Figure 2.2 : Buriganga River, Bangladesh
Chemical contaminants are element or compound that
naturally occurring or man-made. Chemical contaminants are generally associated
with adverse health effect after an extended period of exposure. Nitrate one of
the chemical contaminant which can cause methaemoglobinaemia, or blue-baby, in
bottle-fed infants under 3 months of age (Fan et al., 1996).
Chemical inorganic contaminants such as arsenic, the contaminant compound can
also be oxidized to compounds that are less toxic and easier to remove (Clark
and Boutin 2001).
Biological contaminants are organism in water and
there are also refer as microbes or microbiological contaminants. Pathogenic
microorganisms can be categorised into bacteria (eg. Salmonella tyohi, Vibrio cholera and Shigella), viruses (e.g., Poliovirus)
and protozoa (e.g., Giardia lambia
and Cryptosporidium). These type of
microorganism usually found in the water sample of river groundwater and
drinking water (Borchardt et al., 2003).
Legionella, Pseudomonas, Giardia and E. coli are the microorganisms that mostly found in the
drinking water sources (WHO, 1998). Biological contamination for example
Eschericia coli (E.coli), and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria in the
water bodies leads to chronic health effect on human that causes various
diseases especially bacterial infection (Bannerman et al., 2004).
refers to the accumulated and conglomerate of any materials, organic and
inorganic substances that can be carried out away by water wind and can be an
ice. The other term is often used to indicate the sediment is the soil based
mineral matter such as clay, silt and sand, decomposing of the organic
substance such as nitrate, carbon, amino acid and much more. Moreover,
inorganic biogenic materials are also can be considers in the sediment
materials such as minerals.
Most mineral sediment comes from
erosion and weathering, while organic sediment is typically waste or debris of
any kinds of gravel, silt, sand and decomposed materials such as algae. It also can be as small as a grain of sand
or as large as a boulder. Figure 2.3 show eroding rill in field eastern
Figure 2.3 : Eroding rill (Helming, 1994)
2.4.1 Method to control
to control sediment is to divert uncontaminated water away from work area so
that it does not wash off and cause water pollution to nearby stream, river
lake or sea. Besides that, control sediment also to minimise erosion by
minimising site disturbance and stabilising disturbed surfaces and also prevent
material stockpiles from collecting or discharging sediment.
Woven sediment fences is one of the
most efficient barrier for building sited to control sediment (McGee, 2013).
This fences trap sediment and at the same time allow water to flow through it.
It constructed from geotextile attached the post and on small frontage sites
with limited access, use steel posts and wire tied fences that can be readily
unhooked for unloading of materials.
Figure 2.4 : Woven Sediment Fences (McGee,
Futhermore, other method to control
sediment is by using slit fences. Silt fences is also known as filter fence, it
is a temporary sediment control device where usually used on construction sites to protect
water quality especially nearby lakes, stream, river and sea from loose soil in stormwater runoff.
According to researcher, silt fences widely used on construction sites in North
America due to low cost and simple design to be installed ( Sprague and C.J. ,
1999). Figure 2.4 show the installation detail for silt fence with
specification recommended by US EPA.
Figure 2.5 : Silt fence specification (EPA
2.4.1 Sediments transport
sediment transport is the movement of solid particle wheater organic and
inorganic particle that presence in the water flow due to the combinations of the
gravity force that acting on the particle and the movement of the fluid itself (Bridge,
2003; Fryirs and Brierley, 2013). The greater the flow, the more sediment will
be flow away due to the shear force that presence while the water is conveyed.
An understanding of the principle of
the sediment transport is extremely important in order to interpretation and
solution of many types of hydraulic, hydrologic and water resources engineering
problem especially involving the river engineering and also coastal
engineering. Figure 2.4 show the initiation of motion of the sediment transport
2.4 : Sediment can be carried downstream by water flow
transport are also known as the sediment load, as the load is represented the
total load include all the particles moving such as bedload, suspended load,
dissolved load and also wash load.
Figure 2.5 : The composition
of the sediment transport
2.5 WATER QUALITY TESTING
of the water quality based on the degree of purity and pollution. Water quality
indexes (WQIs) and environmental indicator have been developed based on
chemical, physical and microbiological characteristic (Sladecek, 1973). Water
quality is fundamental for water resources management and multiple uses. If
water quality is poor it will affect not only for human but it also affect
aquatic life. Water quality can be measured by many parameter for example
chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), tubidity, pH,
fecal coliform and etc.
2.5.1 Biological Oxygen
oxygen demand (BOD) is measured amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) that is used by
aerobic microorganisms when decomposing organic matter in water. BOD is used
for determination of requirement of oxygen for stabilizing household and
industrial waste (De, 2003). BOD is one of the important parameter because it
provides an index to assess the effect discharged wastewater will have on the
receiving environment. The higher the BOD value, the greater the amount of organic
matter or “food” available for oxygen consume the bacteria. Regulation for BOD
will vary for every country and region. For drinking water standard, BOD should
not exceed 6 mg L-1 according to the WHO (De, 2003).
A.K., 2003. Environmental Chemistry. 5th ed. New Age International
Publisher, New Delhi, pp. 190, 215, 215, 242-244.
is the one of measurement key to test water quality. Turbidity is a measure of
clarity of water and how much material suspended in water that decrease the
passage of light through water. Example of suspended material is soil particle
(clay, silt and sand), algae, plankton, microbes and etc. Turbidity in water
can affect the colour of the water and it also can be measured quickly, easily
and less expensive compare to other water quality testing. During season of
monsoon, heavy soil erosion and suspended solid from sewage will increase the
turbidity where it can effect on river and aquatic life. According to WHO the
standard turbidity in drinking water must in between 1 to 5 NTU (World Health
2.5.3 Fecal Coliform
Total and fecal coliform
is bacteria is a primary indicator to be measured to ensure their suitability
for consumption of drinking water. Concentration of total coliform bacteria
associated with the possible presence of disease cause by organism. The
presence of fecal coliform bacteria in aquatic environments indicates that the
water has been contaminated with the fecal material of man or other animals. In
several study it found that fecal bacteria in suspended sediments can be 10 to
10, 000 times higher than in the water (Buckley et al., 1998).
Table 2 : National Water Quality Standards For
Malaysia (EQR, 2006)
5 – 7
5 – 7
3 – 5
< 3 < 1 pH - 6.5 - 8.5 6 - 9 6 - 9 5 - 9 5 - 9 - Colour TCU 15 150 150 - - - Electrical Conductivity* µS/cm 1000 1000 - - 6000 - Floatables - N N N - - - Odour - N N N - - - Salinity % 0.5 1 - - 2 - Taste - N N N - - - Total Dissolved Solid mg/l 500 1000 - - 4000 - Total Suspended Solid mg/l 25 50 50 150 300 300 Temperature °C - Normal + 2 °C - Normal + 2 °C - - Turbidity NTU 5 50 50 - - - Faecal Coliform** count/100 ml 10 100 400 5000 (20000)a 5000 (20000)a - Total Coliform count/100 ml 100 5000 5000 50000 50000 > 50000