2.1 help of different appropriate teaching methods. Adunola (2011)

2.1 Introduction to

Many articles or the studies have been conducted on
different teaching methods and the factors affecting to the teaching method. According
to Ayeni (2011), it is stated that the teaching is an unbroken process that is
about to make difference in leaner’s lives with the help of different
appropriate teaching methods. Adunola (2011) highlighted that in order to make
a change in learner’s it is highly essential to find the best suitable teaching
method with respect to the study area. Besides, Bharadwaj & Pal (2011) indicate
that if the teaching method used by the teacher, is matching with the learner’s
requirement only an effective outcome can be gained. According to all the given
definitions, it is clearly visible that finding the most effective teaching
method makes a vital change and is highly required.

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According to (McCombs & Whistler, 1997; Weimer,
2002) it is indicated that in the higher education context, Teacher centred
teaching style has been switched to Learner centred teaching style due to
various reasons by justifying that is the suitable approach in their education
context. It has been found that if the learner is seeking to be self-driven,
without concentrating only on what, how, and when to learn, but also who has a
desire to explore more on the own learning, Learner centred approach is more
suitable. According to the findings the learner-centred approach replicates and
is embedded in constructivist philosophy of teaching (Brown, 2008; McCombs
& Whistler, 1997; Weimer, 2002, and Schuh, 2003).

Grasha (1996) has defined the teaching style as behaviour
of the teacher with the blend of personal qualities. On the other hand Conti
(1979, 1983, 1985, 1989, and 2004) has expressed his idea on the teaching style
as different qualities shown by a teacher according to the situations, irrespective
of the content being delivered. Similarly, Dupin-Bryant (2004) defines learner-cantered
teaching style as “a style of instruction that is responsive, collaborative,
problem-centred, and democratic in which both learners and the teacher decide
how, what, and when learning occurs” (Dupin-Bryant, 2004, p.42).

to the findings the effectiveness of teaching does not only rely on the
teaching method used, but there are some more factors to be considered as well
such as Economic factors, Social factors, Environmental factors, Linguistic
factors. Anyway in this report these factors will not be described in depth
since the main objective is to find the effective teaching method based on
learner’s experience and the preferences regardless of any other external

2.1.1 – The measurement of the Teaching

(1989) identified two major teaching styles or methods which are known as,

A reactive, combined, Learner centered method and

A governing, Teacher centered method

Conti (1979) established and confirmed an instrument which is capable of
measuring the learning principles that the learners are adhering to.

to the definitions the most cooperative method was defined as Learner centered where
both the learner and the teacher is sharing the consultant for curriculum
formation (Conti, 1982). As the measuring tool of the teaching style Conti established
and validated PALS (Principles of Adult Learning Scale) in the late 1970s and
early 1980s.  This instrument has been
used in several research studies such as Clow, 1986; Wilson, 1994; Miglietti
& Strange, 1998; Wang, 2004. According to the results of these studies
adults who are enrolling with the higher education shows a strong preference
for the Teacher centered approach, even though the Learner centered approach is
promoted in the adult education literature.

contrast in an earlier study, Miglietti (1994) concluded that according to the
measurement of the Principles of Adult Learning Scale, if the Learner centered
approach is used significance difference can be made in Learner’s grades, sense
of completion, and overall satisfaction about the course delivered. It has been
found that in learner-centered environment learners score higher grades, there
is a high growth in course accomplishment and high course satisfaction than
those in are surrounded by the Teacher centered environment. These results are backing
the majority of recommendations derived from the study. It is concluded that
Learner centered teaching method is the most effective teaching style which was
preferred by most of the learners.

first research with the help of Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) concerning
the suitable teaching style to learners was conducted with adult basic
education learners in south Texas (Conti, 1985). According to the statistical
evidence, it is specified that the teacher’s there is a significant influence through
the Teacher centered method in academic gains of the learners, which has not
been criticized by most of the researchers according to the findings provided.

2.1.2 Teacher-Centered vs. Learner-Centered
Teaching Style

is stated that the Learner centered style is mainly about the viewpoint of which
focuses on the learners’ experiences, perspectives, experiences, capacities,
interests, capacities, and needs. In positive perspective it has been explored
that through this method it is able to endorse the highest levels of
motivation, learning, and achievement for all learners (McCombs & Whisler,
1997, p. 9).

a supportive factor Weimer (2002) proposed five areas that needed to change in
order to maintain the Learner centered environment. These areas are,

1)      The
choice of content

2)      The
teacher’s role

3)      Responsibility
for learning

4)      The
process of assessment and

5)      The
power of relationship between teacher and learners.

(2002) stated that, Learners needed to have ownership of their own learning,
contribute to the design of curriculum, and the responsibility for some levels
for instruction. Similarly, Bain (2004) recognized several characteristics of teachers
who engage in Learner centered approach. Among these characteristics are that teachers
make a strong impact on the lives of theirs learners, place a strong emphasis
on outcomes derived through learners by using different forms of assessment,
and the effect on career goals.

and Freed (2000) described that in teacher centered learning, learners
passively receive

since the learners are always to grab the knowledge through the teachers only and
highly rely and limited to what teacher is delivered only. Due to this reason there
is no opportunity for learner’s personal growth. Qiao and Liu (2006) reported
that though the Learner centered approach has been encouraged in higher
education in recent years, yet the

centered approach may be still leading in actual practice. Results of their study
showed that most teachers are still using the traditional, teacher-centered
styles in university settings. Meanwhile in this research it is also measured the
teaching method which is currently using rather than only finding the preferred


Brown (2008) claimed that in the learner centered approach
there is a high possibility of engaging with making the decisions of the relevance
of the content in accordance with the learner’s interest which gives the ownership
over the learning.

Wolk (2010) also provided a supportive argument stating
that in learner-centered learning, Learners perform a vital role in designing
their own curriculums while the teacher plays the role of a facilitator or a supporter
who provides guidance to the learners to achieve their goals. Furthermore in
the article by Ng and Lai (2012) presented an exploratory study that examined
whether a wiki-based project could substitute learner centered learning. According
to the results gained it is concluded that wiki can facilitate learner centered

2.1.3 Teaching Methods and its Effect on
Effective Learning

As the main objective of this study, with the
support of literature it has found that there are several paybacks of using the
most effective teaching method which clearly matches the learner’s learning
preferences. Martini (ND) stated if the teaching method match with the learner’s
preference there’s a high impact on the attitudes towards the teaching method. Dunn,
Griggs, Olson, Beasley, and Gorman (1995) did a meta-analysis of 42 studies
examining learners learning preferences and the effects of matching and
mismatching teaching styles. Results revealed that learners whose learning
style preferences were matched with teaching strategies could be expected to
score 75% of a standard deviation higher than learners whose
learning style preferences were not matched with teaching strategies (Dunn et
al., 1995).

2.2 Learners’ preferences for teaching

is a strong opinion within the education research literatures that learner centered
approaches make a positive difference to the outcomes of all learners.

terms of learners’ preferences for teaching methods, a study by Qualters (2001)
suggested that learners do not favor active learning methods since the in-class
time taken by the activities, distress of not covering all of the material in
the course on time, and worry of changing from traditional classroom
expectations to the active structure. In contrast, research by Casado (2000)
examined perceptions across six teaching methods namely,

1)      Lecture-discussion

2)      Lab

3)      In-class

4)      Guest

5)      Applied
projects and

6)      Oral

the Lecture-discussion is highly preferred by the learners. Lab work, oral
presentation, and applied projects were also favorably regarded. Hunt et al
(2003) also noted favorable learner attitudes towards active learning methods.