1.1 main cause of depression in teens and listed

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The topic that we have selected for this
assignment is depression and the sub-topic is the ways which lead to
depression. There are two articles that we have chosen to analyze and evaluate
both of the contents.

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In the first article is from local newspaper,
The Star Malaysia, sited from , 
wrote by Donna Vickroy and has been published on 8 Jan 2018, the title
of this article is about “Technology triggers teen depression”. Overall, this
article is mainly focused on the argument from various psychological,
professional and guidance director such as Jean Twenge, Najeh Awadallah and
Brian Nolan. They talk about the hours of using technology which spend by teens
has a huge impact in causing depression. They argue about the technological is
the main cause of depression in teens and listed out the reasons behinds it.

 

The main argument in this article
is parents should pay attention to their children on the impact of the hours
they spend on technology, unreasonable time spending on technology is the main
caused to lead to depression.

 

In the second article is from Opposite
viewpoint, journal article, sited from    , wrote by Dr Farzaana Afzal and has been
published on 13th March 2012, the title of this journal is about
“The reasons for depression”. Overall, there are various reasons which caused
depression and the symptoms of depression, in mentally or physically. The main
argument of this article is depression is an illness that affects a person’s
emotion and health. This article also listed out the reasons and treatment for
people who is having depression, and argues that depression is not only
affecting a person’s mind, but also the body and mood, it can be cured with
various treatment.

 

1.2 SUMMARY OF THE ARTICLE – AUTHOR’S ARUGUMENTS

1.2.1 ARTICLE 1: TECHNOLOGY TRIGGERS TEEN
DEPRESSION

According to article 1 which is “Technology triggers teen depression”, the author argues that to protect
their children’ mental health. The fact, in a new study links
anxiety, severe depression, suicide attempts and suicide with the rise in use
of smartphones, tablets and another device. So parents must develop methods for
outsmarting them, and often that involves simply turning them off.

 

This is a strong argument to us. This argument had
mention that to protect children’ mental health which is a good argument because a lot
of children get symptom about depression after using smartphone and technology
devices so parents must take care of this problems and find out a good solution
to solve it properly.

 

Apart from that, the author argues that Jean Twenge (psychology
professor) released a study shows a correlation between the rise of the
smartphone and increasing rates of depression, suicide attempts and suicide
itself among teens. In fact, of this argument, based on CDC data and teen-issued surveys
that revealed that feelings of hopelessness and suicidal contemplation had gone
up by 12% during the time period and that nearly half of the teens who
indicated they spend five or more hours a day on a ­smartphone, laptop or
tablet said they had contemplated, planned or attempted suicide at least once
compared with 28% of those who said they spend less than an hour a day on a
device. Local school counselors and social workers
as well as clinical mental health experts at local hospitals in the United
States confirm they are seeing an uptick in signs of depression and/or anxiety
among teens. But, they also say, there are things parents and professionals can
do to help curb the risks.

 

In this argument mentioned that the relationship between the rise of the
smartphone and increasing of depression such as suicide attempts among teens.
This is intent to a weak argument even though the premises are true but cannot
consider as a strong argument because it consists flaw of causation fallacy
which also known as the false cause fallacy or co-relational fallacy, this
fallacy assume the cause for a particular event where there are no evidence or
only circumstantial evidence exist to justify the linkage. This fallacy is made
when two unrelated event are linked due to a correlation either by accident or
by some other unknown event. Where the premises mentioned that feelings of hopelessness and suicidal
contemplation had gone up by 12% during the time period and cause someone to
depression by using technology devices that spend five or more hours a day.
However, the rate of depression increasing but not represent it is causes by
spend a lot of time to use technology devices because the depression also can
come from their work. So as we can see this is no direct related between rate
of depression and using smartphone even though the data had been given by
author is true.

In other hand, the argument is the very device that can cause depression is also giving
fragile teens access to websites that can encourage them to engage in
self-harming behaviours. In fact, to complicate matters, mental health experts are warning about the
dangers of technology at a time when more schools are going paperless and
issuing tablets to students. While there may be an upside to going paperless, one thing is
certain: Our kids will be spending countless numbers of hours in front of some
type of screen during the duration of their education. Headaches, tired eyes,
and insomnia are bad for everyone. For students that are already prone to
mental health issues, this too often results in truancy, low test scores, poor
homework habits and depression.

Which is the strong argument in article 1 because it had mentioned that
fragile teens access to websites that can easily let them in self-harming
behaviours such as the premises spending countless numbers of hours in front of
some screen suring the education so it can cause a lot of student’s headaches, tired
eyes and insomnia which is bad for everyone. Not only that, students also
because of this issue prone to mental health problems and going to truancy
because got depression.

 

Moreover, the author argues that the current increase in ­depression and
anxiety among teens might be attributed to a ­higher frequency of smartphone
uses and the fact there’s less stigma about mental health issues. Fact of this case, kids are more prone to speaking about mental
health issues than maybe they were before. A lot of
adolescents would argue that
the relationships they have with people online are real relationships for they’re ­interacting at a high level of ­frequency,
either talking with friends or playing video games, they’re actually interacting with them.

 

In this argument we can consider this is a weak argument because the
argument of this article have mentioned the current increase in depression and
anxiety among teens might be attributed to a higher frequency of using
smartphone and the fact there’s less stigma about mental health
issues which is consist to confusing necessary and sufficient conditions.
Confusing necessary and sufficient conditions is also known as affirming the
consequent fallacy, it states that a condition is something which has to be
necessary if a conclusion is to hold and it also assumes that a condition is sufficient
to support a conclusion. So which is because the premises of this argument have
stated that kids are more prone
to speaking about mental health issues than maybe they were before. A lot of
adolescents would argue that
the relationships they have with people online are real relationships for they’re ­interacting at a high level of ­frequency,
either talking with friends or playing video games, as we can see not only a talking
with other friends in online when using smartphone which is also can playing
video game with online friends even though they are sufficient in condition.

 

1.2.2 ARTICLE 2: Teens & Tech: REMAINING AWARE
& RESPONSIBLE IN THE SOCIAL MEDIA AGE

According to article 2 which is “Teens
& Tech: REMAINING AWARE & RESPONSIBLE IN THE SOCIAL MEDIA AGE”, the
first argument that the author argues
social media have many of effect on our mental health. From the studies,
showing that a person who spent on social media will cause he or she lead to
lack of sleep, it also will able rises your risk for developing a mental health
disorder. In addition, sites that place a heavy value on images, such as Twitter,
can usually exacerbate feelings of inadequacy and negative self- image.

From this argument, we can saw that it is
a strong argument to us. The argument has mention about the social media will
bring us disadvantage to our mental health. Nowadays, people will pursue
vigorously something on social media until achieve it. This action led many
people into mental health disorder. For the example, playing games and watching
drama.

 After this, the next argument that argues by
the author is mental health literacy includes the ability to recognize signs,
symptoms, and risk factors associated with mental illness. Because it is paired with the corresponding ability to engage
in help-seeking and prevention behavior. However, teens can gain understanding
of their motivations behind certain social media behavior by asking themselves
with some questions about the aim of using social media. From the action, there
will be an awareness alert them whether the site is useful for them to peers or
it is making them feel worse.

This argument is a strong argument to us.
Teens should have the ability to identify whether the site is giving them
benefits or making them confuse. The premises of the argument are valid.
Because by observing some symptoms and action from a person that will be useful
to us to stop someone get in with mental illness.

Furthermore, the author argues that realized how and when to take a break from
distressing can also benefit teens struggling with heavy social media use. In
facts, parents have a good communicate with their teens about the value of
taking breaks, especially during stressful or upsetting time. Such as taking a
walk or talking about the issue one-on-one, can help teens when it is the time
to have a breaks.

This argument discusses about take a
break is important for teens who are stressful. So, the argument is intended to
be a strong argument. Parents should play a role in educating their children
about the value of taking break. Some people realize that using social media
such as play games is able to release their stress but they do not realize that
during playing games actually getting more stress especially games those need
to level up.

Instead of that, the author also argues
that the social media can provide much
needed support. It is because people can go online and find their
communities of support. Social media able to help provide an accepting
community for teens who have interested. Throughout Facebook groups, teens can
find support groups for people who struggle with depression, anxiety, or any
other mental health disorder. These support groups can be a great resource for
teens who are learning to cope with their feelings.

In this argument we can consider this is a weak argument because the
argument of this article have mentioned the social media can provide much
needed support which is confusing necessary and sufficient condition. That
means people can have an online communities of support from such unknown
people. Which is because the premises stated above have talking about
throughout with some social media groups teens can find out support. Instead of
that, provide support for teens also can throughout family. Family able to give
a warm concern to teens rather than social media.

Last but not least, the argument that the
author argues is educating teen about
social media use. Parents can talk to them about potential mental health
effects. From that, teens will know how to utilize social media in a good way.
Otherwise, teens will have corrupted or addicted by social media.

In this argument we can consider this is a weak argument because the
argument of this article have mentioned parents have to educate teens about
social media use which is consist to flaw of causation fallacy. The premises
from this argument is valid as teens does not know how to utilize social media
it will cause them corrupted by bad examples. Nowadays, teens will use social
media to chat, play games, and watching drama. Once parents do not concern with
them they search fun on social media. If situation of teens turns into critical
it also can cause them suffer depression.

 Lastly, the author argues that try to be open minded by asking your child
what they view as the problem. If teens struggle with specific mental
health disorder, parents might suggest them search for support groups that may
useful and help them what they are going through. In this way, parents can both
better understand their motivations behind using social media, and the ways
that may be exacerbating mental health concerns.

This argument discusses about parents
need to be open minded to their children is  
important for teens who are suffer mental health disorder. So, the
argument is intended to be a strong argument because this argument told us that
the action from the parents is very important to teens. Sometimes, parents only
have to simply ask some warmly questions to their children and that actually
will make a big change to them. From the premises, the author has told us
parents must concern with their children by trying be open minded and trying to
understand them.  

 

1.3 CRITICAL REVIEW

1.3.1 SIMILARITIES BETWEEN BOTH ARTICLES

 

 

There are a few similarities between the both articles as
article 1 and article 2. One of the similarity from argument 2 article 1 is the
author stated that a correlation between the rise of the smartphone and
increasing rates of depression, suicide attempts and suicide itself among teens
( Jean Twenge ) and the argument 1 from article 2 is the social media have many
effect on our mental health. The second similarity from argument 1 article 1 is
the author argues that to protect their children’ mental health with the
argument 5 article 2 is the author argues that educating teen about social
media use.

 

1.3.2 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BOTH ARTICLES

 

 

However, there are several differences that we can find in
these two articles. The first difference in article 1 is in argument 3 where
the author mentioned that can cause depression is also giving fragile teens
access to websites that can encourage them to engage in self-harming behavior
and the argument 4 in article 1 mentioned that the current in depression and
anxiety among teens might be attributed to a higher frequency of smartphone use
and the fact there’s less stigma about mental health issues.

On the other hand, the first different that can found in
article 2 is in argument 2 is mental health literacy includes the ability to
recognize signs, symptoms, and risk factors associated with mental illness.
Second, the argument 3 the author argue that realized how and when to take
break from distressing can also benefit teens struggling with heavy social
media. Third, the argument 4 argue that the social media can provide much
needed support. 

 

In articles 1 the author argued that the technology will
cause people depression affect to their life-styles and article 2 remaining
aware and responsible in the social media that can help people to relief stresses.
Technology can reduce suffering from depression.  

 

1.3.3 AGREEMENTS OR DISAGREEMENT WITH AUTHOR ON
VARIOUS POINTS

Article 1

Agreement

In the article 1, the first argument
is “parents should protect their children’ mental health”. We agree on the
argument that the author stated that parents should protect their children’
mental health because nowadays many children mostly spend their time on
technology such as smart phone, television, computer or laptop and electronic games,
which caused them to have some mental health problem. Parents should take the
responsible to guide their children regarding to the time they spend on
technology. Time is the main impact which caused children to have mental
health.

 

The second argument
that we agree on is “the very device
that can cause depression is also giving fragile teens access to websites that
can encourage them to engage in self-harming behaviors”. Fragile teens
would tend to involve in self-harming behaviors. For example, the time
consumption on the technology will affect them to have vision problem such as
short or long sighted. Moreover, teenagers have a habit of using hand phone too
frequently while driving or on the road which will eventually cause road
accident or negligence act.

 

Disagreement

In the article 1,
the first argument is “a correlation between the rise of the
smartphone and increasing rates of depression, suicide attempts and suicide
itself among teens”. We actually disagree on this argument because sometimes
children get to find treatment to solve their depression by using technology,
which can help them to release their mental stress and make them feel
relaxation through the use of technology such as electronic game. The increase
of suicide rate may be coming from the themselves but not the technology
itself. In the modern day, many education centre start to use e-learning system
to encourage paperless environment, by using the device, it is less likely to
caused student to suicide but they may suicide by the stress from the education
itself.

 

In the article
1, the second argument that we disagree is “the current increase in ­depression and
anxiety among teens might be attributed to a ­higher frequency of smartphone
use and the fact there’s less stigma about mental health issues.”  We actually disagree on this argument because
depression is mainly from the emotional of teenagers itself, but not the
technology. For example, teenager playing games will become stress especially
those game that require to buy coins to level up or buy weapon to increase
their characteristic to compete with others player, when they fail to compete
with others, they become stress and depression. Hence, which means technology
caused depression, it is depends on how teenager think about the technology and
its content.

 

Article 2

Agreement

In the
article 2, the first argument that we are actually agree is “social media have many of effect on our mental
health”. Social media did effect teenagers’ mental health
problem such as depression, anxiety and will become more irritating in
emotional. Teenagers always addicted playing electronic games which will
eventually cause them to sacrifice their sleeping time and use it to play
electronic game. Moreover, playing games at night will cause them  to decrease their memory.

 

Not only this, the second argument that we agree is
“mental health literacy includes the ability to recognize signs, symptoms,
and risk factors associated with mental illness”. Teenagers should have the
ability to recognize the good and the bad of each website they are visiting.
From the very moment they surf the website or internet, some website contain
negative video such as porn, violence and how to use drugs.  Although it is common to see this kind of video throughout
the whole social media, but one thing we should know is teenagers’ curiosity
are eternal, hence they like to try new things which will caused harm or risk
to them unknowingly.

 

Moreover, the
third argument that we agree is “realized how and when to take a break from distressing can also benefit
teens struggling with heavy social media use”. Teenagers can solve their
emotional problem by using social media or technology to play games, they can
also have a group discussion with the professional about their depression or
emotional problem and how to solve these problem. But the most important thing
is the timing of using social media.

 

Additionally,
the last argument that we are agree is “try to be open minded by asking your child what they view as the problem”. Parents
should always concern and put more attention on their children by discussing
everyday issue. Even though it is a small issue for parents, but it might be a
big issue in teenager mind. Parents should feel free to chit-chat with children
whenever there is a chance, children will feel love from parents and will
discuss whatever issue with parents. And parents can sense or feel that once
their children have mental health problem by the conversation.

 

 

Disagreement

In the article 2
argument 4, we disagreed on the author states the argument as “the social media can provide much needed
support”. The reason of disagreeing the argument including although the
teenagers may get some comfort and support from the social media, but the
teenagers doesn’t know about the person who are supporting them in the social
media. The communities on Facebook that accept people with the mental illness
of depression may not be reliable. The communities might guide them with coping
the feelings of the teenagers, but the teenagers shouldn’t fully trust or rely
on the person in the social media because nobody assure that they are reliable.
The most reliable people are the parents. Parents are the one who provide the
greatest supports to their children. Some of the teenagers may not want to obey
or listen to their parents, as the communication between the parents and the
children must be clear without any misunderstanding.

 

In the article 2
argument 5, we disagreed  on the author
states that “educating teen about social media use”. In our group
opinion, parents play an important role to advise their children to control
their time spending on the social media. Parents should discuss about the
circumstances of overspending their time on the social websites as Facebook,
Instagram and etc. Not only that, parents may tell their children about the
mental health effects. The communication between the parents with the children
is  the best way for them to interact
each other. The teenagers will control themselves from the desire of the social
media through the education and communication with the parent.  Moreover, parents should also educate them about
the websites, unhealthy wordings and image 
on the social media. This is because the fragile teenagers may be
affected by those unhealthy websites easily. The situation of the teenagers may
turn into critical and it also will cause them depression. Therefore, the
parents should concern their children frequently and understand their current
situation to protect their children from the harms of social media.

 

 

1.4 CONCLUSION

In a nutshell, technology is a branch of
knowledge that deals with creating tools, processing actions and extracting of
materials. We use technology to extend our abilities and complete various tasks
in our daily lives more efficiency. We apply technology to almost everything we
do in our lives such as use technology at work, communication, learning,
creating and so on. It can be benefit to humans if technology is well applied,
but if it is wrongly applied, it can be cause harm to us.

Nowadays, almost every teenager has a technology device such
as smartphone, laptop, tablet and so on. They